Cheaper than printing it out: buy the paperback book.

Out of Control

Macbeth, Norman. Darwin Retried. Gambit Incorporated, 1971.
A fair "trial" of the evidence for Darwinian evolution. Short, but effective. Tends to highlight the discrepancies, but offers no alternatives.

Maes, Pattie. "How to do the Right Thing." Connection Science, 1; 3, 1989.
Discusses an algorithm for robotic intelligence which will bias choice of action in certain directions as an ongoing "plan."

----. "Situated Agents Can Have Goals." Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 6; 1990.
How functional goals can emerge from a mass of simple rules in robots.

Malone, Thomas W., Joanne Yates, and Robert I. Benjamin. "Electronic Markets and Electronic Hierarchies." Communications of the ACM, 30; 6, 1987.
How increased use of cheap coordination technology will shift the economy away from hierarchical forms to market networks. Excellent paper.

Mann, Charles. "Lynn Margulis: Science's Unruly Earth Mother." Science, 252; 19 April 1991.
An entertaining account of mainstream evolutionary biologists' reaction to Margulis's ideas.

Margalef, Ramon. Perspectives in Ecological Theory. The University of Chicago Press, 1968.
The best treatment of ecosystems as cybernetic systems.

Margulis, Lynn, and Rene Fester, eds. Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation: Speciation and Morphogenesis. The MIT Press, 1991.
Lots of case studies on symbiotic relations. A few good chapters on reevaluating symbiosis' role in evolution.

Markoff, John. "The Creature That Lives in Pittsburgh." The New York Times, April 21, 1991.
About Ambler, the huge semismart walking robot built by CMU in Pittsburgh.

May, Robert M. "Will a Large Complex System be Stable?" Nature, 238; 18 August 1972.
An early mathematical demonstration that showed that beyond a critical value, complexity unstabilizes a system.

Mayo, Oliver. Natural Selection and its Constraints. Academic Press, 1983.
This extremely technical book treats the genetic constraints on natural selection very seriously. Mayo asserts the constraints create narrow boundaries for evolution. He also dabbles with some alternative theories, which he woefully concludes cannot replace the current theory.

Mayr, Ernst. Toward a New Philosophy of Biology. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1988.
Mayr is the arch-orthodox Darwinian. Not only did he cofound the Modern Synthesis of Neo-Darwinism, he remains its most dogmatic defender. Yet, he proposed what later became the bad-boy idea of punk-eek twenty years before Gould, and in this book he makes a strong case for radical, cohesive constraints of the gene.

Mayr, Otto. The Origins of Feedback Control. MIT Press, 1969.
A readable history of ancient servomechanisms and modern mechanical feedback devices, including one invented by the author's father.

-----. Authority, Liberty & Automatic Machinery in Early Modern Europe. John Hopkins University Press, 1986.
How the metaphors of control shaped and were shaped by the technologies of control.

Mazlish, Bruce. The Fourth Discontinuity: The Coevolution of Humans and Machines. Yale University Press, 1993.
An excellent, penetrating history of the bionic convergence and its philosophical consequences. If this book had been published earlier, I would have borrowed much from it; but it came out as mine was being wrapped up.

McCulloch, Warren S. An Account of the First Three Conferences on Teleological Mechanisms. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1947.
A dense summary of the first three Macy conferences, which covered an amazing range of topics, all before they hit upon the term "cybernetics."

McKenna, Michael, Steve Pieper, and David Zeltzer. "Control of a Virtual Actor: The Roach." Computer Graphics, 24; 2, 1990.
How to direct a virtual roach to walk where you want it to within a virtual environment.

McShea, Daniel W. "Complexity and Evolution: What Everybody Knows." Biology and Philosophy, 6; 1991.
A wonderful review of historical notions of increasing complexity in biological evolution ("what everybody knows"), and the author's own evidence against the idea.

Meadows, Donella H., Dennis L. Meadows, et al. The Limits to Growth. New American Library, 1972.
Notorious simulation from the Club of Rome which extrapolates economic and environmental trends of the whole Earth. Widely lauded and critiqued in the 1970s.

Meadows, Donella H., Dennis L Meadows, and Jorgen Randers. Beyond the Limits: Confronting global collapses, envisioning a sustainable future. Chelsea Green Publishing, 1992.
Sequel to 1972's best-selling The Limits to Growth.

Metropolis, N., and Gian-Carlo Rota, eds. A New Era in Computation. The MIT Press, 1992.
A very fine collection of essays written for the layperson which speak on the impact that parallel computing has had and will have on computer science, culture, and our own thinking.

Meyer, Jean-Arcady, and Stewart Wilson, eds. From Animals to Animats. The MIT Press, 1991.
The papers from a fruitful conference on the simulation of adaptive behavior, which gathered ethologists studying real animal behavior and roboticists trying to synthesize behavior in artificial "animats."

Meyer, Thomas P., and Norman Packard. "Local Forecasting of High Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics." Center for Complex Systems Research, The Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, 1991, technical report CCSR-91-1.
Theoretical underpinning for attempts to make "local" predictions in complex systems.

Midgley, Mary. Evolution as a Religion: Strange hopes and stranger fears. Muthuen & Co, Ltd., 1985.
Midgley wrestles with the philosophical consequences of "belief" in evolution, sometimes successfully and sometimes not. But she provides much to think about.

Miller, James Grier. Living Systems. McGraw-Hill, 1978.
A massive (we're talking about 1100 pages of minuscule type here) tome on the levels, sublevels and sub-sublevels of living systems, including organizations and such. Think of this as a printout of raw data on all living systems.

Minsky, Marvin. The Society of Mind. Simon & Schuster, 1985.
In 270 very readable one-page essays, Minsky presents a society of ideas about the society of mind. It is true Zen. Every page is a mob of astounding and mind-changing ideas. And at every point in thinking about complex systems I would come back to Minsky. This is the book that eventually led me to write this book.

Modis, Theodore. Predictions. Simon & Schuster, 1992.
In some ways a little cranky, but still useful nonetheless as a summary of technological forecasting.

Mooney, Harold A. Convergent Evolution in Chile and California. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1977.
Marks the parallel biological forms in two continents. Primarily ascribes this similarity to the orthodox explanation of similar climate. Does not address the alternative theory of internalist reasons for convergent evolution.

Morgan, C. Lloyd. Emergent Evolution. Henry Holt and Company, 1923.
A very early and not very successful stab at trying to articulate emergent control in evolution.

Moss, J. Eliot B. Nested Transactions: An Approach to Reliable Distributed Computing. The MIT Press, 1985.
Practical use of hierarchy.

Motamedi, Beatrice. "Retailing Goes High-Tech." San Francisco Chronicle, April 8, 1991.
Story on real-time trend-spotting, inventory stocking and manufacturing in the top retailers using intensive networked communications.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge at the University Press, 1965.
The ancient Chinese invented remarkably sophisticated mechanical devices, and this series of awesome books tracks each invention in mind-boggling detail. It's like having a patent registry for the Han people.

Negroponte, Nicholas P. "Products and Services for Computer Networks." Scientific American, September 1991.
What we can expect from pervasive ultrahigh bandwidth networks, by the director of the MIT Media Lab.

Nelson, Mark. "Bioregenerative Life Support for Space Habitation and Extended Planetary Missions." Space Biosphere Ventures, 1989.
Gets into the early attempts at self-sustaining space habitats.

Nelson, Mark, and Gerald Soffen, eds. Biological Life Support Systems. Synergetic Press, 1990.
The proceedings of a 1989 workshop on closed biological-based systems as human life support devices in space. Held at the site of Biosphere II and cosponsored by NASA. Technical but rich.

Nelson, Mark, and Tony L. Burgess, et al. "Using a closed ecological system to study Earth's biosphere: Initial results from Biosphere 2." BioScience, April 1993.
Description of the scientific experiment in Biosphere 2 written by Bio2 staff after the first year. Has excellent bibliography for this esoteric subject.

Nitecki, Matthew H., ed. Evolutionary Progress. University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Biologists don't know how to handle the idea of progress in evolution. Here leading evolutionists, philosophers, and historians of biology grapple with the controversial idea in these postmodern times, and come up ambivalent in the aggregate. A few of them find the notion "noxious, culturally embedded, untestable, nonoperational, intractable." Those who do acknowledge progress in evolution are uncomfortable. This is a good, revealing collection of papers.

O'Neill, R. V. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, 1986.
Treats the latest hot trend in ecology: a new perspective which considers communities as hierarchical structures with different dynamics for every level. Does a good job in setting out the questions that need to be answered.

Obenhuber, D. C., and C. E. Folsome. "Carbon recycling in materially closed ecological life support systems." BioSystems, 21; 1988.
Measurements of carbon pathways in closed ecospheres.

Odum, Eugene P. Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems. Sinauer Associates, 1989.
A quick introductory tour of the science of ecology by the guy who brought energy accounting to the field.

Olson, R. L., M. W. Oleson, and T. J. Slavin. "CELSS for Advanced Manned Mission." HortScience, 23(2); April 1988.
A paper from a symposium on "Extraterrestrial Crop Production." Good summary of NASA's closed system experiments.

Pagels, Heinz R. The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity. Bantam, 1988.
A satisfyingly rich and perceptive scan on how the complexity of the computer makes visible the complexity of the world.

Parisi, Domenico, Stefano Nolfi, and Federico Cecconi. "Learning, Behavior, and Evolution." In Proceedings of the First European Conference on Artificial Life, The MIT Press, 1991.
Exploration of the role of learned behavior in accelerating evolution based on neural networks.

Pattee, Howard H. Hierarchy Theory: The Challenge of Complex Systems. George Braziller, 1973.

This is a book of all that was known about hierarchical systems 20 years ago, and it wasn't much. The authors ask some good questions which still have not been answered. In short, we still don't know much how hierarchies of control work.

Pauly, Philip J. Controlling Life: Jacques Loeb & the Engineering Ideal in Biology. University of California Press, 1987.

A scholarly biography of the guy who did most to make science think of biological organisms as mechanisms.

Pimm, Stuart L. "The complexity and stability of ecosystems." Nature, 307; 26 January 1984.
Tries to answer the question of how complexity and stability in ecosystems are related.

---. The Balance of Nature? University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Pimm treats food-webs as if they were cybernetic circuits, and out of both simulated and real food-webs has derived some of the freshest ecological news in a decade.

Pimm, Stuart L., John H. Lawton, and Joel E. Cohen. "Food web patterns and their consequences." Nature, 350; 25 April 1991.
An extremely informative review article on what is known about ecological food webs from a systems point of view.

Pines, David, ed. Emerging Syntheses in Science. Addison-Wesley, 1988.
An eclectic bunch of papers signaling the new science of complexity. The best papers in this anthology, derived from the founding workshop of the Santa Fe Institute, focus on the problems of complexity itself.

Porter, Eliot, and James Gleick. Nature's Chaos. Viking, 1990.
The exquisite color landscape photography of Eliot Porter is paired with the lyrical science prose of James Gleick. Both celebrateÑin coffee table book formatÑthe ordered complexities and complications of nature in its large and small details.

Poundstone, William. Prisoner's Dilemma. Doubleday, 1992.
Besides telling you more than you'll ever really want to know about the Prisoner's Dilemma game, this book also ties the game into the history of think tanks and the use of game theory in the arms race and the role of John von Neumann in both game theory and the cold war.

Powers, William T. Living Control Systems. The Control Systems Group, 1989.
A control engineer looks at the variety of control circuits in biological systems.

Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, and Aristid Lindenmayer. The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. Springer-Verlag, 1990.
Plants as numbers.

Pugh, Robert E. Evaluation of Policy Simulation Models: A Conceptual Approach and Case Study. Information Resources Press, 1977.
Evaluates world economic models such as Limits to Growth.

Raup, David M. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? W. W. Norton, 1991.

The title is a very good question. This prominent paleontologist thinks it's a combination of bad genes and bad luck, but that "most species die out because they are unlucky." And thus he presents his evidence.

Reid, Robert G. B. Evolutionary Theory: The Unfinished Synthesis. Croom Helm, 1985.

This is the most interesting book on evolutionary theory I have come across. While other books can serve up more exhaustive critiques of neo-Darwinism, none compare to this one in presenting a post-Darwinian view. The author is not afraid to dip into nonbiological studies to shape his notion of evolution; yet he primarily dwells in biological fact. Most recommended.

Rheingold, Howard. Tools for Thought. Prentice Hall Books, 1985.
Subtitled: "The history and future of mind-expanding technology," this is a really hip and very informative chronicle of how computers became personal computers, of the visionary people behind that transformation, and of its social meaning and cultural consequences. I recommend it as the best history of computers to date.

Ricklefs, Robert E. Ecology. Chiron Press, 1979.
A textbook on ecology that is lucid, deep, and gracefully written and full of the author's personal insight, setting it apart from most rather antiseptic and formulaic ecology textbooks.

Ridley, Mark. The Problems of Evolution. Oxford University Press, 1985.
Here are the current bothersome problems in neo-Darwinian theory from within the perspective of neo-Darwinism.

Roberts, Peter C. Modelling Large Systems. Taylor & Francis, 1978.
Primarily on the difficulties of getting meaningful results via miniaturizing a large system.

Robinson, Herbert W., and Douglas E. Knight. Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence, and Ecology. Spartan Books, 1972.
A few helpful ideas and a fair representation of cybernetic thinking.

Root, A. I., ed. The ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture. A. I. Root Company, 1962.
For over a hundred years a perennial encyclopedia of bee culture lore for first-time beekeepers. Remarkably timeless, last updated in 1962.

Rosenfield, Israel. The Invention of Memory. Basic Books, 1988.
A survey view of the brain as having a nonlocalized memory, and a long prologue to an exposition of Gerald Edelman's controversial idea of "Neural Darwinism," or the natural selection of thoughts in the brain.

Sagan, Dorion. Biospheres: Metamorphosis of Planet Earth. McGraw-Hill, 1990.
Speculations on the science of biosphericsÑhuman habitats as extensions of Gaia.

Salthe, Stanley N. Evolving Hierarchical Systems: Their Structure and Representation. Columbia University Press, 1985.

Can't say I completely understand this book, but it is very provocative in picturing evolution as working differentially at various levels.

Saunders, Peter T. "The complexity of organisms." In Evolutionary Theory: Paths into the Future, Pollard, J. W., ed. John Wiley and Sons, 1984.

Saunders sees complexity arising out of self-organization rather than from natural selection.

Schement, Jorge Reina, and Leah A. Lievrouw. Competing Visions, Complex Realities: Social Aspects of the Information Society. Ablex Publishing, 1987.
Thoughts on communication networks as social structure.

Schneider, Stephen, H. Penelope, and J. Boston, eds. Scientists on Gaia. The MIT Press, 1991.
Some of the papers in this compendium are more rigorous than others, but all strive to describe Gaia in scientific rather than poetical terms. I found the papers which worried about the definitions of Gaia to be the most productive.

Schrage, Michael. Shared Minds: The New Technologies of Collaboration. Random House, 1990.
In a network society the tools of collaboration become essential and wealth- generating. Schrage reports on current research into new network skills.

Schull, Jonathan. "Are species intelligent?" Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13; 1, 1990.
Since the analogy between learning and evolution is at least as old as the idea of evolution itself, the author examines species as thinking structures. His idea is critiqued by cognitive scientists and evolutionists.

Schulmeyer, G. Gordon. Zero Defect Software. McGraw-Hill, 1990.
An introduction to the controversial zero defect concept. I take this book as one method to construct reliable complex systems.

Scientific American, eds. Automatic Control. Simon and Schuster, 1955.
Primarily for historical interest, this anthology of early Scientific American articles on cybernetic control talks about the impact of automatic systems on society at a time (late '40s) when the population of computers in the world was exactly one.

Simon, Herbert A. The Sciences of the Artificial. The MIT Press, 1969.
There's a lot of common sense about how to build complex systems packed into this small book. It also offers rare insight into the role and meanings of simulations.

---. Models of My Life. Basic Books, 1991.
A dull autobiography about the extraordinary life of the last renaissance man in the 20th century. In his spare time he helped invent the field of artificial intelligence.

Slater, Philip. "Democracy is Inevitable." Harvard Business Review, September/October 1990.
Best argument I'm aware of for this provocative thesis: "Democracy becomes a functional necessity whenever a social system is competing for survival under conditions of chronic change."

Smith, Reid G. A Framework for Distributed Problem Solving. UMI Research Press, 1981.
General computer science introduction to constructing programs that work in a distributed environment.

Smith, John Maynard. Did Darwin Get it Right? Essays on Games, Sex and Evolution. Chapman and Hall, 1989.
Deals with current controversies in evolutionary biology in an even-handed and intelligent way.

Sober, Elliott. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. The University of Chicago Press, 1984.
This is an incredibly profound book. It is a philosophical examination of evolutionary theory which begins with the frequent criticism that neodarwinism is rooted in a contradiction, that "survival of the fittest is a tautology." Sober illuminates this causality puzzle and then goes on to reveal evolution as a system of logic. His work should not be missed by anyone doing computational evolution.

Sonea, Sonrin and Maurice Panisset. A New Bacteriology. Jones and Bartlett, 1983.
The "new" here is a view that sees bacteria as not primitive and not independent, but as a superorganism communicating genetic changes worldwide and rapidly.

Spencer, Herbert. The Factors of Organic Evolution. Williams and Nograte, 1887.
At the time of Darwin, the philosopher Herbert Spencer had an enormous impact in forming popular notions of the meaning of evolution. As laid out in this book, evolution is progressive, internally directed to improvement and perfection, among other things.

Stanley, Steven. "An Explanation for Cope's Rule." Evolution, 27; 1973.
One of the rare accepted trends in biological evolutionÑincreasing size in animalsÑgets debunked.

---. The New Evolutionary Timetable. Basic Books, 1981.
Gingerly considers selection of units larger than individuals and addresses long-term directions in macroevolution, but does so without strong conclusions.

Steele, E. J. Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution: On the Inheritance of Acquired Characters. University of Chicago Press, 1979.
The controversial experiments of immunologist Ted Steele, who claims to demonstrate Lamarckian evolution in inbred strains of mice, is presented in the experimenter's own words. Steele's work has not been confirmed.

Stewart, Ian. Does God Play Dice? Basil Blackwell, 1989.
For technical insight on chaos and dynamical systems, a better book than Gleick's bestseller "Chaos." Stewart doesn't have Gleick's narrative flair, but he does go deeper into the whys and hows, with numerous graphs, illustrations, and a bit of math.

Stewart, Thomas A. "Brainpower." Fortune, June 3, 1991.
Article about the role of knowledge in creating wealth for companies. I picked up the term network economics here.

Symonds, Neville. "A fitter theory of evolution?" New Scientist, 21 September 1991.
In lay science terms addresses results suggesting "Lamarckian" evolution in E. coli soups.

Tainter, Joseph A. The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
I disagree with the author's basic tenet that declining returns on increasing complexity causes collapse of stable civilizations, but his argument is worth reviewing.

Taylor, Gordon Rattray. The Great Evolution Mystery. Harper & Row, 1982.
Taylor treats evolution as an unsolved mystery and trots out both conventional Darwinian explanations and conventional doubts about those explanations. It is the most palatable and easy to digest anti-Darwinian book, although a real skeptic of anti-Darwinism will need to proceed further via its good bibliography for the convincing details.

Thompson, D'Arcy. On Growth and Form. Cambridge University Press, 1917.
A classic reminder of the ubiquitous influence of form in life.

Thompson, John. Interaction and Coevolution. Wiley & Sons, 1982.
Solid compendium of the most current thinking, evidence, and analysis in coevolution.

Thompson, Mark. "Lining the Wild Bee." In Fire Over Water, Williams, Reese, ed. Tanam Press, 1986.
Story of the guy who put his head inside a wild bee swarm, and who writes about the meaning of bees and hives.

Thomson, Keith Stewart. Morphogenesis and Evolution. Oxford University Press, 1988.
A wonderfully refreshing and completely undogmatic view of evolution by a renegade group (the "heretics") at Yale. Thomson theorizes that internal constraints determine "themes" within evolution and "clusters" of species. Highly recommended.

Thorpe, Col. Jack. "73 Easting Distributed Simulation Briefing." Institute for Defense Analyses, 1991.
An executive summary of the Gulf War 73 Easting Simulation pitched to win support for further military simulations.

Tibbs, Hardin. "Industrial Ecology." Arthur D. Little, 1991.
This white paper for an industrial consultant is an early sketch of what a full-bore industrial ecology would look like.

Todd, Stephen, and William Latham. Evolutionary Art and Computers. Academic Press, 1992.
In addition to gorgeous color plates of William Latham's evolutionarily generated art forms, this book doubles as a technical manual for the computer science and philosophy behind the images.

Toffler, Alvin. PowerShift. Bantam Books, 1990.
Futurist Toffler speculates pretty convincingly on expected trends in a networked economy and society.

Toffoli, Tommaso, and Norman Margolus. Cellular Automata Machines: A New Environment for Modeling. The MIT Press, 1987.
Tiny universes created by simple rules as a means to explore world-making. This is the most comprehensive text on the science of cellular automata.

Travis, John. "Electronic Ecosystem." Science News, 140; August 10, 1991.
Good introduction and background on Tom Ray's artificial evolutionary Tierra system.

Vernadsky, Vladimir. The Biosphere. Synergetic Press, 1986.
First published (and ignored) in 1926, this Russian monograph has only recently garnered attention in the West. It is a poetic-scientific foreshadowing of the Gaian notion-life and Earth as one organism.

Vernon, Jack A. Inside the Black Room. Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1963.
An early follow-up to Hebb's original experiments in sensory deprivation at McGill University, Vernon did his at Princeton University during the late '50s in a soundproof room in the basement of the psychology building.

Vrba, Elisabeth S., and Niles Eldredge. "Individuals, hierarchies, and process: towards a more complete evolutionary theory." Paleobiology, 10; 2, 1984.
There is a hunch that large-scale pattern in evolution (macroevolution) derives from the hierarchical nature of nature. This paper makes a preliminary case for the argument.

Waddington, C. H. The Strategy of the Genes. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1957.
The book that gave theoretical biology respect. Waddington wrestles with the influence of the gene's agenda upon evolution and tackles the Baldwin effect.

Waddington, C. H., ed. Towards a Theoretical Biology. Aldine Publishing, 1968.
For a field that lacks more than one example, biology has always yearned for more theory. These proceedings stemmed from a series of memorable symposia that Waddington hosted to launch a more comprehensive systems-style look at biological organisms. The "Waddington conferences" have taken on legendary status in the post-Darwinian community.

Wald, Matthew L. "The House That Does Its Own Chores." The New York Times, December 6, 1990.
Report on the opening of the first demonstration "smart" house in Atlanta.

Waldrop, M. Mitchell. Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. Simon & Schuster, 1992.
A popular account of the Santa Fe Institute's approach to complex adaptive systems. Good stuff on economist Brian Arthur and biologist Stuart Kauffman. Waldrop's book is better than Roger Lewin's identically named Complexity, because he explains more and attempts to synthesize the ideas.

Warrick, Patricia S. The Cybernetic Imagination in Science Fiction. The MIT Press, 1980.
Science fiction has enlarged the thought space for imagining cybernetic possibilities, which science proper can later fill.

Weinberg, Gerald M. An Introduction to General Systems Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, 1975.
Helpful introduction course on "thinking whole."

Weinberg, Gerald M., and Daniela Weinberg. General Principles of System Design. Dorset House Publishing, 1979.
Perhaps the best book on modern cybernetics. Works well in a classroom because it includes cybernetic exercises.

Weiner, Jonathan. The Next One Hundred Years. Bantam Books, 1990.
A journalistic survey of our Earth as a closed system.

Weintraub, Pamela. "Natural Direction." Omni, October 1991.
Readable and fairly reliable report on Hall and Cairns's work on directed mutation in bacteria.

Weiser, Mark. "The Computer for the 21st Century." Scientific American, September 1991.
It may be a while, but I believe that someday this will be considered a seminal article staking out the role computers will play in our everyday lives.

Wesson, Robert. Beyond Natural Selection. MIT Press, 1991.
At times, a mere tedious cataloging of evidences and examples of nonadaptationist evolution. At rare moments, it gets to the "so what" of it all. I owe the late author a couple of key ideas.

Westbroek, Peter. Life as a Geological Force. W. W. Norton, 1991.
A geologist's personal recounting of evidence that life shapes rocks.

Wheeler, William Morton. Emergent Evolution: and the development of societies. W. W. Norton & Company, 1928.
An early, slim volume - a paper really - on holism.

Whyte, Lancelot Law. Internal Factors in Evolution. George Braziller, 1965.
An informed and bold speculation on the internal selection within the genome. Readable and thought provoking.

Wiener, Norbert. Cybernetic, or control and communication in the animal and the machine. John Wiley, 1961.
The germ of all cybernetic texts. Except for the preface, it is unexpectedly technical and mathematical. But worth delving into.

Wilson, Edward O. The Insect Societies. Harvard University Press, 1971.
An indispensable book of fascination, great insight, and clear, lucid science. Required meditations for Net-mind.

Wright, Robert. Three Scientists and Their Gods. Times Books, 1988.
Wonderfully crafted profiles of three world-class thinkers on a quest for the unifying theory of information. Wright has much to say about whole systems and complexity. Highly recommended. On rereading this book after I finished mine, I realize that it is probably closest to my own in spirit and range.

Yoshida, Atsuya, and Jun Kakuta. "People Who Live in an On-line Virtual World." IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, technical report 92TH0469-7; 1992.
A fairly intensive study of users of a virtual networked world - Fujitsu's Habitat system in Japan - and how they used it.

Zeltzer, David. "Autonomy, Interaction and Presence." Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1; 1, 1992.
Locating autonomy and control as one axis of three in a matrix of virtual reality. (The other two are degree of interaction and presence.)

Zorpette, Glenn. "Emulating the battlefield." IEEE Spectrum, September 1991.
From the engineers' own mouths, a report on the new and increasing role of simulations in warfare.

Zubek, John P., ed. Sensory Deprivation: Fifteen years of research. Meridth Corporation, 1969.
A compendium of survey articles reviewing the literature of sensory deprivation up to 1969, when this topic was fashionable. The effects of SD are about as elusive as those of hypnosis, and all the hopes for the field have evaporated as uneven data piled up.

Zurek, Wojciech H., ed. Complexity, Entropy and the Physics of Information. Addison-Wesley, 1990.
Some attempts to define complexity.

Cybernetics. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1953.
Contains transcripts from one set of the Macy meetings. Including great dialogues of befuddlement as Ashby introduces his "homeostat machine."

Self-Organizing Systems. Pergamon Press, 1959.
The fascinating proceedings of a major conference with an all-star line up of principal cybernetic pioneers. After each paper is a revealing record of the panel discussions, where the true learning happens. Why don't other books do this?

Transactions of the 9th Conference on Cybernetics. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1952.
Remarkable discussions that have hardly aged on the emergence of control in biological and

Annotated Bibliography: A to L...